We, human, like to think of our race as something special, or even divine. In the Genesis, humankind is the creation of God and we came from heaven. But Science has proven otherwise. For example, Tattersall (1999) plainly explained our humble origin In a broad sense, we ourselves are apes because we are descendents of something we can more easily call an ape than a human (Tattersall, 1999 p31). However, the similarities between a modern human and an ape almost stop there and if we attempt to speak to the ape, all we receive in return will probably be a blank look. Moreover, when I consider something that differentiates human from other animals and allows our race to transcend other species, I always think of culture, language, writing, arts, cognitive skills and technology (or craft-making and tool-using).
First of all, Art, symbol, music, notation, language, feelings of mystery, mastery of diverse materials and sheer cleverness are what significantly differentiate us from the Neanderthals (p172), one of our closest relatives. They are acquired by us as we grow up but, unfortunately, were very foreign to the Neanderthals and others. Thus, we know for sure that as long as we possess such knowledge and skills, we are able to manipulate our external environment and natural conditions, such as using fan and air-conditioners to counter tropical weather and turning on the heater during winter, which not only show that we have become a different and superior race (Tattersall 1999 p32) but also enable us to live more comfortably.
Intelligence and learning abilities, on the other hand, can be seen in other animals, and thus it is not something that divides humankind from others as much as we used to think. As many dog-owners can attest, you can teach the canine animals various tricks ranging from basic such as sitting down to slightly difficult such as flushing the toilet. In a famous study, a young chimpanzee demonstrated a tendency to deceive other chimpanzees in the group when her food share was threatened by another male chimpanzee (Tattersall 1999 p45-47). Initially, she would lead the group straight to the hidden food source until the male chimpanzee began to monopolize the food. In response, the female chimpanzee refused to reveal the food, sitting on it until the male one left. She then developed a few strategies to secure her food share such as sitting away from the food and dividing the food into two parts. The male chimpanzee, in return, seemed to understand the logic behind the female ones actions and developed his own strategies to find where the food was hidden. Thus, the experiment shows that deception or Machiavelli, which is prevalent in our society is, perhaps, not strange to some animals.
Language, according to Tattersall (1999 p 186) permits and requires an ability to produce symbols in the mind, which can then be reshuffled and organized and is unique in human. First of all, language depends on the mental manipulation of symbols, which are embodied in the sounds systemized to represent language. In addition, language is basically used to communicate, to express our thoughts and opinions, to represent and explain ourselves to others in a meaningful and orderly way, which have not been seen in other animals. Therefore, the possession of language is clearly what differentiates and makes us human, to enjoy the human capacity fully.
Technology is another factor uniquely pertaining to humankind. Nowadays, we can communicate and interact using various media, the results of technological developments laptop, computer, telephone, mobile phone, etc. Moreover, we tremendously broaden our network coverage with planes, trains, the Internet, etc and are no longer confined to a geographic location like other animals. Nevertheless, technology is a rather important step in the history of human. The development of technology comes from cognitive skills and self-consciousness which are inherent in human as if we are born to think and learn within our environment. Even though, one might question why humankind is different when human beings are also under the influence of nature, as Tattersall (1999, p 216) argues we are the result of the same natural processes that have produced all of the other myriad life-forms in the world, the answer is that we are different from others because we feel different (p216) and have a different sort of intelligence to adjust to , one which allows us not only to view ourselves, but also to manipulate the environment around us, in a qualitatively unique way (p32). For example, Eldredge shows that there are fundamental differences in how people hunt and gather for survival, meaning they totally depend on their surrounding environment and people who have adopted an agricultural lifestyle (Tattersall 1999 p 216). The hunting and gathering people know the ecosystem intimately and in great details but do not seek to modify it, in almost the same way as other animals. However, as soon as human adopts agriculture, they view their place in nature differently they are no longer in an intimate relationship with nature, and the relationship now becomes a battle in the humans quest to dominate over nature (p218), which is a matter of sidestepping environmental vicissitudes through application of technology.

Thus human is clearly an entity, which, though still dependent on nature, develops a dictatorial and confrontational attitude towards nature excessive use and overexploitation of natural resources. We develop and use technology to tame nature and once we have experienced the detrimental effects of our overexploitation, technology immediately comes to our rescue Genetic-Modified crops, pollution-minimizing technology, hybrid cars, greener houses.
Nevertheless, the modern human is still similar to other animals in some ways. For example, we are mortal we have basic needs such as food, drink, sex, etc we suffer from diseases, we can catch infectious viruses and we suffer from Natures rages (flood, draught, tsunami, etc). It seems that there are still some biological fundaments in human which link us to our ancestorsthe great apes. According to Tattersall (1999 p 79), human does not simply attain our place in nature today by mere luck or by natural selection in fact, he suggests, we got here the hard way. In the beginning, we may not be any different from other animals in terms of our means of surviving the external conditions. However, we have constantly evolved and the morphological differences between us and our ancestors nowadays are large. But the history of our species is just one more terminal twig on a large branching bush (p105). He proposed that a large number speciations must have occurred in order for us to achieve such biological discrepancy.
As a result, even though in a broad sense, we ourselves are apes (p32), we have come a long way from our root to be considered another race, superior and advanced in all aspects. We are aware of the past, with historical accounts and enlightening knowledge we are aware of the present with the mass media constantly informing us about issues and complex developments and we look forward to the future with technological helps and statistical methods for forecasting. Moreover, with knowledge, we are able to dominate physically stronger animals with guns and weapons. However, such knowledge may also bring about our self-destruction in terms of pollution, wars, terrorism and accidents.


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