Physical Anthropology

1. How do changes in limb ratios reflect differences in bipedalism
The shorter arms of the Homo species, through matching the natural pendular frequencies of both the upper and lower limbs, improve the walking efficiency as compared with the long-armed, short-legged. Also, the coordination of the swing frequencies of the upper and lower limb is necessary for the maximum efficiency in the bipedal walking in modern human. As to the IMI or the ratio of the lengths of the upper and lower limbs, 68-70 will allow bipedal walking (Wang  Crompton, 2004).

2. Describe how our genus relative brain size changes across time.
The Homo habilis, which lived around 2 million years ago, had a brain of 750 cc while the early. The early and late Homo erectus had a brain size of 900 cc and 1100-1200 cc respectively. The Homo sapiens had over 1300 cc while the Neanderthal skull was 1500 cc. Lastly, that of the Homo sapiens sapiens is 1400 cc (Brain Size, n.d.).

3. How might changes in tooth size reflect changes in diet Provide an example.
Usually the presence of molars indicates a herbivorous lifestyle while the development of canines and a strong jaw suggest a carnivorous nature. The thick jaws and large molars and premolars of the Australopithecus suggested a vegetarian lifestyle. On the other hand, the jaw and canine structure of Homo erectus suggested higher consumption of meat (Hussain, 2007).

4. Why is it that there is a possibility that the earliest record of stone tool use may not in fact represent the earliest evidence of tool useThe earliest evidence of tool use may not have been made possible by humans but by invertebrates, which developed in the evolutionary scale long before humans did, such as the veined octopus. The veined octopus collects old and discarded coconut shells for use as shelter (Ramos  Barnett, 2009).5. What stone tool assemblage(s) have been identified from the Lower Paleolithic What species are associated with the assemblage(s)

The stone assemblages of the Lower Paleolithic include large cutting tools, particularly cleavers and hand axes. The commonest hand axes were oval, lanceolate, pear-shaped and triangular with convex, concave or straight cutting edges. The Homo ergaster was the earliest known of these tools and later on, the Homo erectus (Roe, 2010).


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