Baboon Hunts Baby Gazelle.

What affect has living in the open grasslands had on Baboon behavior and group size
Patas monkeys and Baboons living in the Savanna where jungle trees are scarce have been forced to leave the protection of trees and adapt to a more dangerous lifestyle in the open grasslands. Living in the Savanna is very dangerous, not only because of short food supplies, but also because of the constant threat of some very impressive predators. The first affect this change in lifestyle had on these primates was to teach them to stand and often walk on their hind legs in order to see over the high grass, very much like early the humans did. Baboons have adapted to this situation in other ways as well. For example, they are much larger than forest monkeys and, as shown in the video, live in groups of about 80 individuals. Baboons have also become much more weary and aggressive than tree-living monkeys. One scene from the video even showed a couple of large males chasing a cheetah away from their pack. Finally, though mainly vegetarian, aggressive baboons have developed a more predator-like behavior which sometimes permits for meet to be added to their diet. This behavior was shown in the video when a baboon attacked, killed and ate a baby gazelle, an otherwise regular grazing companion.

Multilingual Monkeys
What are some of the important reasons that sophisticated vocalizations have evolved in many different

African species (colobus, guenons, mangabeys)
In the jungle, different species of monkeys speak different languages. It has been noted that in Africa, many species of guenons, mangabeys and colobus monkeys live, travel and rest together, forming a joint society. For these societies to function, communication between the different species of upper canopy dwellers and floor dwellers is essential. The most common calls used are warnings about approaching predators. Each monkey communicates in a language specific to its species. These calls are then understood by all other monkeys of the group, regardless of their species. This proves that monkeys have the ability to understand multiple languages. There are also variations in the sounds used. This elementary form of grammar allows the monkeys to convey messages of doubt or non-urgency.

Another example of  sophisticated vocalizations can be taken from the white-faced capuchin monkey of Costa Rica. The subordinate individuals of these highly competitive societies have been know to break the trust upon which their alarm system is built. They will sometimes lie about an approaching predator in order to eat their meal while the higher ranking monkeys are busy looking for the invented predator. This deceitful technique is another way that monkeys benefit from their advanced language abilities.

Monkeys on the outlook
How does  social  politics influence the safety of feeding and providing for young in this group of Rhesus

The group of Rhesus Macaques shown in this video find food in a nearby lake. However, considering that the food they search for is under water, collecting it can be very dangerous. Monkeys with a high social ranking are privileged and are allowed to hang from the outstretched branches of lakeshore trees while they search for food. From this point of safety, they are much less vulnerable to predators. However, the younger, less dominant members of the clan must go into the water and dive for their food. For protection, these monkeys rely on guards to alert them if a predator approaches. Unfortunately, the guards are not always reliable and it is the young, low ranking monkeys that pay the price.

Monkeys Medicine 
What precautions do the white-faced capuchin monkeys take when there is increased humidity in the environment   why. Monkeys are very prone to ectoparasites as well as bacterial and fungal infections of the skin. They understand that an increase in humidity is associated with an increase in their vulnerability to these ailments. People of Costa Rica have long known about the antiseptic and insect repellant properties of the Piper plant. It seems that the white-faced capuchin monkeys of the area also appreciate the plant s leaves for the same reasons. When a Piper plant is found by a monkey, a social event begins. The monkeys will share the leaves, rubbing them on one another and literally disinfecting each other. This learned behavior seems to be more frequent when the humidity level is high and the need for insect repellant and good hygiene is even more essential.

What is the adaptive advantage for this female to have two mates  polyandry What is the likely reason that both males are attentive to the offspring

Female emperor tamarin monkeys take two mates for one, very simple reason. These females almost always have twins. As are all monkeys, tamarin females are very protective of their young. The help of two fathers is therefore very beneficial. Because neither of the males can be sure of their paternal link to the young, both can be trusted to care for them. Therefore, by having two mates, the female can safely take a break from carrying her infants by giving each male one to care for. This arrangement assures a higher level of safety for the vulnerable young monkeys.


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