Biocultural Evolution.

Throughout history, cultural evolution has been a defining feature of the process of evolution in humans. This process of evolution in culture occurs through the interaction of both cultural and biological factors which makes this field of evolution to be called biocultural evolution. Biocultural evolution is an evolutionally process which arises as a result of interactions between different cultures and biological factors throughout the history of human evolution. The term biocultural evolution describes cultural behaviors and biological factors influence to human evolution (Lewis, et al, 2009). It also explains the nature of both cultural and biological factors and how they influence human evolution and the way they relate to each other. Some of the examples of biocultural adaptations include lactose tolerance, sickle-cell anemia allele maintenance and adaptations in tropical populations.

There are more examples concerning how the environment influence changes in evolution. On the other hand, there are various circumstances where biological factors influence some cultural behaviors. From the time biocultural evolution began back in eighteenth century, it has always been a product of the interaction between biological and cultural factors. Biocultural evolution occurs through an abrupt process where organisms evolve from simple primitive forms that are largely influenced by their environment to more advanced ones. Actually, it is often very hard to determine the distinction between the cultural and biological evolution because early evolutions seemed to be commencing on cultural theories, biological world generalization, and then these theories were supported using biology (Alexander, 1997, p.49). For example, it is represented in English writings on naturalisms and by the physician Erasmus Darwin (1731 to 1802), (Charles dawins grandfather) and the French biologist Jean Baptiste de Lamark (1744 to 1829), that each of them encountered ideas concerning cultural and social progress (Alexander, 1997, p.17). Darwin Lamarck also proved that interaction between biotic factors and cultural factors were involved in evolution by showing that culture change could be influenced by the interactions between man and surroundings like plant and animals.
Physical anthropologists have discovered that the genetic constitution can be changed through the interaction of man and his environment e.g. the process of practicing agriculture. Normally, there is a dynamic correlation that exists is between culture and biology. This connection occurs when our neurons transmit the stimuli we receive from the environment and transmit it to our bodies and which affects our genetic expressions in order to respond to the stimuli. With time, this process leads to conditioning of the bodies to react in a certain way to the stimuli which alters our behavior and genetic makeup in the long term in order to project the body to respond to certain stimuli from the environment in a certain way.
Biocultural evolution is studied trough archaeology. In the study of biocultural evolution, human culture is studied through the searches, analysis, documentation and interpretation of historical architecture, biofacts, and other data from the environment Archeology aims at understanding humankind using endeavors that are humanistic. The fields of archeology applied in biocultural evolution studies are cultural anthropology, linguistic anthropology and physical anthropology. Archaeology normally entails the excavation analysis and interpretation of data from the environment and relating it to the process of cultural evolution (Angeloni, 2009). The collected data is then compared with the data from the present in the process of analyzing cultural change in archeological studies involving biocultural change. There are various objectives which include explanation and documentation of the development and origins involving human cultures, culture history understanding, the studying of behavior of human beings, evolution of culture developing a chronological timeline for various cultures from historic to the present societies. Archeology provides an avenue for analyzing cultural change through history since it gives information about human history and is responsible for most of the information that is gathered about changes in cultural history.
Archaeology, sometimes do provide the means of learning the peoples cultural practices in their past through the analysis of the artifacts and other objects and phanaphelia that are recovered through excavation. Throughout most of history of mankind, societies and cultures existed without any written record of their cultures or activities they engaged in. Some of the societies who had written records document little or incomplete data about their cultural activities they engaged in. other methods that can be used in deciphering the culture of ancient societies like folk tales and narratives cannot give the complete picture of the culture of ancient societies (Angeloni, 2009). The only way in which cultures of ancient societies could be deciphered is only through archeology.
The elites world-view and interests often are different compared to the interests and lives of populace. Even in circumstances where there was existence of records that were written, they were not complete and were to some extent, also biased invariably. Therefore, the records that were written had a tendency of reflecting assumptions, biases, individuals deceptions possibility and cultural values, normally a small number fro the larger population. Thus, these records that were in written form cannot ever be relied on as a credible source of information.
Archeological remains are credible and scientific sources of information that can be used in analyzing culture and its changes in ancient societies. Archeological evidence of culture presents a valid source of information about culture since they have cultural and political significance to the societies who used to produce them. Like aesthetic and monetary values. Archeology identifies cultures based on the analysis of their recovery according to religious aesthetic, economic, and political cultures of the societies (Lewis, et al, 2009).
Archaeology, in 1920s from Southwest of American, was actually tied tightly to the approach that relied on historical evidence. The approach went on pursuing archeological treasures of  southwest of America, Northwest Coast America, Andes, Mesoamerica, Siberia, Oceania, among other areas worldwide where the society exhibited great variability in their cultures as was exhibited in their archeological remains. This approach adopted the historical and ethno historical connection and the way it related to modern culture in evaluating cultural diversity and change
Several archaeologists from America (1960s), like Kent Flannery and Lewis Bin ford were against cultural history paradigms. They introduced New Archaeology, which was a little bit more anthropological and scientific. It utilized scientific method and hypothesis testing which were important parts of what finally called procession   archaeology. In 1980s, there came up a movement which was postmodern which was led by archaeologists- Michael Shanks, Daniel Miller, Ian Holder and Christopher Tilley . This movement questioned appeals of processualism concerning scientific impartiality and positism, it emphasized on importance of theoretical reflexivity (Angeloni, 2009). The whole approach was named as post-processual archaeology which processualists used to criticize complaining that it lacked scientific rigor.
Methods that archaeologist used to study biocultural evolution.

Regional survey can be defined as an attempt of locating unknown sites systematically within a region and also locate interest features, like maidens and houses, in a site. These two goals can be achieved using same methods. In early days, survey was not used since researchers and cultural historians at the time used to be content with the discovery of locations concerning monumental sites arising from local populace, excavating from visible features only. Through survey work, there arises many benefits if its performance as an exercise in excavation. This method is cost effective and fast since there is no processing of large soil volumes in searching for artifacts. Survey technique is the simplest of the methods. It entails the combination of methods normally on foot but it can use transport that is mechanized, in order to search artifacts and features that are visible while observed from the surface ground. Aerial survey can be conducted by the use of cameras which are attached to balloons, kites and airplanes. It can detect a lot of things that were invisible when done from surface (Lewis, 2009). Aerial photographs that are taken at different durations during the day can help to show structures outlines through the use of shadow changes. Geophysical survey usually is the most effective to help observe underground features.

Archaeological excavation has existed for a long time. It is still in use today although modern techniques have been developed. Modern techniques in excavation do require the recording of precise location of features and objects called provenience or provenance. Excavation is more expensive than all the other archaeological research. It carries concerns in ethics although it is a destructive process. It is used in mechanical equipments that are large in size like bachoes (JCBs) to remove the topsoil (overburden) to excavate on buried archeological treasures (Lewis, et al, 2009). It involves the digging of a feature like a ditch or a pit contains two parts  the fill and the cut which are given numbers consecutively for the purpose of recording.

Once there has been the excavation of the structures and artifacts and some archeological artifact is collected from surveys surface, it is important to study them, and gather much data. The process is called post-excavation analysis, and it takes much time as a method of archaeological investigation.

Virtual archaeology
Around 1995, archaeologists adopted the use of computer graphics in building sites three dimensional models like throne roomer or ancient Rome (Angeloni, 2009). This normally is done through collection of normal photographs and also using graphics in computer in building this 3D model.
While all these cooperation have presented new challenges and fieldwork hurdles in the field of archeology, on the other hand it has been a benefit to the parties that are involved through enhancing the processes of excavation, analysis and interpretation of artifacts in archeology.


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