Reusable Water Bottles Vs Eco-Friendly Water Bottles

Each and every act of living organisms in this world is connected with environment. Now the world is in the crucial stage of transformation with its emerging technological growth and also increasing demand for clean environment. Several international institutions have taken the task of maintaining the balance between the ever increasing technology and clean environment through the concept of sustainable development. In connection with measures of sustainable development, recycling process is a much promised measure. Major part of recycling process is carried in plastic manufacturing sector, where bottle industry is a prominent one in it.

There is a great debate on the pros and cons, viability and difficulties in the implementations part on the reusable eco-friendly bottles. Now most of the college students are using plastic water bottles, where Cal State San Marcos students are not an exception to it. Change from the young generation can last long and if it comes from the college students, then it will be an ideal start. It is the right time to switch on to the eco-friendly water bottles from the plastic water bottles, keeping in view on the concept of sustainable development. According to Paul R. Ehrlich, Anne H. Ehrlich, humans are unquestionably the dominant animal. Humans are creating a world that threatens our own species (Ehrlich 2008). People are changing the planet in ways that darken our descendants future. So, there is need to give a though to that urgent need and take necessary measures.

The main issue
Nowadays everyone seems to have reusable bottles because they are smart in their hands than those extremely overpriced and environmentally un-friendly bottled waters. Reusable bottles set a trend at this moment it will save money and the environment. Nearly 22 billion plastic bottles are ending in landfills every year. Americans consume over 70 million water bottles a day and throw 38 billion bottles a year into landfills. Many bottles are recycled and in states requiring a deposit on bottles, the recycling rates are much higher. Apart from creating environmental issues the plastic water bottles production is 10,000 times more than tap water (Croston 2008). Switching into eco-friendly water problem can is a better option in many ways, but students should be motivated to move on that side.

Problems with Plastic Bottles
This year Americans will buy an estimated 25 billion single-serving, plastic water bottles. 22 billion will end up in a landfill.
Every year 2.7 tons of plastic was used to bottle worldwide.

America alone use 1.5 million barrels of oil to make plastic water bottles  enough to fuel some 100,000 U.S. cars for a year.

One of the most common sources of pollution initiate on our beaches is with plastic bags and plastic bottles.
The quality of tap water is better than bottled water (Tastefullygreen).
One in eight of the worlds population does not have access to clean water. Water Aid is a global charity. Their mission is to overcome poverty by enabling the worlds poorest people to achieve access to secure water, hygiene education and sanitation.

One of the main arguments in present scenario     
Are the rumors true that refilling and reusing some types of plastic bottles can cause health problems Are using eco-friendly is possible at this point of time
Plastic bottles are harmless to recycle at least a few times if properly washed with warm foamy water. Although latest revelations, about chemicals in Lexan bottles are enough to alert even the mainly dedicated environmentalists from reusing them (Or retail them in first place). Using eco-friendly water bottles is possible by the students, but little care is need along with some time should be spent, as they are not available as abundantly as plastic water bottles.

Chemicals May Contaminate Food and Drinks in Reused Plastic Bottles
According to many of the researches conducted, food and drinks stored in plastic water bottles contains traces of Bisphenol A (BPA), a artificial chemical that interferes with the bodys usual hormonal messaging scheme.

Reused Plastic Bottles Can Leach Toxic Chemicals
The similar studies initiate that continual re-use of such bottles which get dinged up through usual wear and tear and while being washed, increase the probability that chemicals will reveal away of the small cracks and crevices that develop over time. According to the Environment California Research  Policy Center, which reviewed 130 studies on the topic, BPA has been related to breast and uterine cancer, an increased threat of miscarriage and decreased testosterone levels. BPA can also cause disaster on childrens developing systems. (Parents beware Most baby bottles and sippy cups are made with plastics containing BPA.) Through regular usage the sum of BPA that could leach into food and drinks is probably small, but there are concerns about the cumulative effect of small.

Reused water bottles made up of five-gallon polycarbonate bottles will leach bisphenol A (BPA) into the water. BPA leakage is linked to chromosome damage and hormone disruption. Limitation of our exposure to estrogenic plastics seems essential because of the carcinogenic nature of estrogen. Plastic water bottles have significant impact on the environment. Even if they are recycled, energy must be used to remold them into new bottles (Randall. 2005)

According to the federal governments National Toxicology Program expressed that BPA could harm childrens neurological development and reproductive organs. In animals it leads to early puberty in females, enlarged prostates in males and even cancer (Levi 2008).

Plastic is obtained in the pure form, but subsequently gets contaminated as the technology needed for it is underdeveloped. One of the main problem faced in recycling is using up of different kind of polymers.  As polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene are incompatible, it is difficult to separate them. Even separation and mixing is an expensive process (Herman 2003). Probably best means of recycling plastic cheaply is reuse of plastic bottles. There is need to do enough research on different contaminants and the techniques of reuse. Sterilizing the plastic bottles is more expensive than the production of original water bottles (Fujan and Lincoln).
Millions of Plastic Bottles End Up in Landfills.
Presently every public recycling system will take them back, that is such bottles are easy to recycle is a good news. The nonprofit Berkeley Ecology Center found that the produce of plastic uses huge amount of energy and wealth and generates toxic emissions and pollutants which gives rise to global warming. In the U.S. millions of plastic water bottles are land filled every calendar day, even though PET bottles can be recycled. Recycling is an impressively pure form of altruism, a wide spread commitment to the greater good. Recycling is done because it is worthwhile to conserve landfill space, or save energy and materials. It is the right thing to do, because it is good for the environment (Frank 1997).

Importance of this issue
Marketers say that bottled water is healthy water. It is real that bottled water is just water. Every year, it is estimated that worldwide bottled water sales ranges from 50 to 100 billions, the market expanding at the starting annual rate of 7 percent.  Now a days bottled water is a big business. Except in terms of sustainability, bottled water is a dry well. Its wasteful, costly and distracts from the brass ring of public health, the maintenance and construction of safe municipal water systems (Baskind).
Recent studies have shown some possible health risks involving the use of BPA in plastic water bottles. To stay healthy, drinking water is very important and Green Bottle offers a safe and environmentally friendly way to get what body needs as solution to the problems caused by the huge worldwide use of disposable plastic water bottles, the Green Bottles were designed. Nearly 2.5 million plastic water bottles per hour are wasted in the USA alone.
Now it is time for awareness and change. Now is the time to switch on to the alternative of plastic water bottle and go for Green Bottle. Every Green Bottle or eco-friendly bottle is made of 188, food grade stain less steel and is completely BPA free. Green Bottles main purpose is to replace disposable plastic water bottles which are harmful to health and environment (Timelesstrinkets)

Carcinogens is leaked when a disposable bottled is reused. In reusable bottles we will not get these problems. In the United States, it is estimated that 7 billion dollars are saved by using reusable bottles. Reusable bottles are made with a number of different materials including plastic, stainless steel and aluminum (eHow).

Environmental crisis
Environmental crisis is a danger and it is at our doors. Today the most vulnerable and debatable topic is on environmental crisis in front of living beings. The ecologists on one side are seriously contributing their discussions over environmental destruction and they also discussed about the causes. The main causes are population growth faulty use of technology and unlimited use of economic growth are the most important. A few discussions happened on this topic of environment development factors but there is no much impact on developing countries supporting the issue. In the middle of the discussion there has been some opinion session taken from young scientists of developed and underdeveloped countries. They took opinion of young scientists because they represent a generation of huge changes in the environment.
Environmental crisis is the disaster that occurred to the atmosphere that needs to address urgently. It is concerned with the climate change, population growth, agriculture and food supply, solar and nuclear power water and air quality and forest, fisheries and fossil fuels. Technological advancement and economic development can mitigate some of the problems like deforestation, land degradation, air pollution, providing clean water, improved public health and adequate energy supplies (Unesdoc.unesco).
In the first session of the meeting two models were proposed. The first model was introduced by scientists of computers department of Massachusetts institute of technology. The model was mainly concentrating on The Limits of Growth. The second theory was proposed by in consideration of United Nations Advisory committee on the Application of science and technology and development. The plan consists of reducing the gap in developing countries

Aesthetic View   
The aesthetic view is nothing but because of the unexpected destruction and disasters of which happening in the environment. The so called beauty lovers are worry about the changes happening in the environment

Malthusian View
The famous British scientist of have suggested that growth of population is causes for the environmental pollution. Because of his theories over principal growth of population is the well known and most critical reason for environmental crisis. The power of population is most significant factor than the power of earth. If the population increases the development rate automatically decreases. If that is the problem means some of the exploiters have suggested decreasing the birth rate of the country. For some reasons the population may not be the cause for the environmental crisis.

Anti-technocratic View
Because of the technological advancement the developing and developed countries are using the benefits extensively. The claustrophobic effects of high density urbanization give us idea of great technocratic situation
Symptoms of environmental crisis
The findings of DDT in Antarctica, Plastics of Sargasso Sea, Oil in European beaches, cyanide drums in children playgrounds and many other are the symptoms of environmental crisis. In the past five years many recognitions and not expected warnings is being happened for the environment. For them the environmental crisis is unwanted happenings of nature. But there was some other definition for the environmental crisis they include energy consumption and water consumption and many other. For the third group the definition is little different they mostly concern about the separation of mankind and the nature because of the increased development of urbanization. Lastly for the forth group the environmental crisis are for the underdeveloped countries which they sale the natural resources for the sake of basic needs for poor, illiterate and so on.
In order to maintain balance there is need for access to family planning and other reproductive services, advancing human development and rights and promoting gender equity most importantly for the younger generation (Mazur 2009).

Expect to Address   
Eco-friendly water bottles are getting a lot of attention. It is become really common to drink bottled water because its convenient some people think it is healthier. These days more and more people are choosing reusable water bottles for their hydration needs.  Public drinking fountain water is purer than bottled water. Local water agencies are subjected to careful controls to ensure the cleanliness and purity of tap water. Reusable water bottles are just as convenient as and stronger than the disposable kind, in addition to environmental and economic benefits. It is easier to carry reusable water bottles and fill up at the nearest tap. Bottled water is not less expensive, healthier, and safer on the environment (Squidoo). Bottled water is packed in polyethylene terepthalate (PET) plastic. It emits harmful toxins such as nickel, ethyl benzene, ethylene oxide and benzene into air and water during production. 86 plastic water bottles used in the US are not recycled. The majority bottled water sold in US is packaged in petroleum-based PET.

To clean the reusable water bottles, do one of the steps below
Soak in hot water with lemon.
Soak in hot water with backing soda.
Soak in hot, soapy water.
To prevent bacteria
To prevent the growth of bacteria and mold, store bottles in the freezer immediately after washing.

Previous Literature  
According to Glenn Crotson, water is a precious source, perhaps more precious than oil. Between 9 and 10 billion the worlds population is expected to hit by mid century, but the supply of clean, fresh, usable water is decreasing and climate change may get worse the situation. Parts of the U.S. South and Southwest have been in a drought for years, tightening water supplies to the major U.S. cities. There are different kinds of water which can be reused. Black water comes from kitchen sinks and toilets. Black water requires sewage treatment and is not suitable for reuse in the home because health concerns linked to contamination with fecal material or food particles that may raise bacteria (Croston 2008). Los Angeles, Chicago, Phoenix, San Francisco, St Louis and many other cities have recently banned bottled water. A major shift in public opinion is that bottled water is seldom of higher quality than tap water. According to Eric Olsen, Natural Resources Defense Council says that it causes 60 million plastic bottles a day to be manufactured, transported and then disposed off in U.S. landfills. It is killing our earth, and for no fine reason.  
Consumers usually purchase bottled water under the misunderstanding that it is safer, purer than tap water. Bottled water companies will spend billions to manipulate customers to believe that bottled water is healthier than tap water. In America and around the world millions of gallons of fuel are wasted daily transporting filtered tap water. It requires three times as much water to make the bottle as it does to fill it, it is an exceptionally wasteful industry. Home water filtration is the most economical, most convenient, most logical and healthiest alternative to tap or bottled water. Complete control over the degree of purity with home water filtration. Just Say No to bottled water is better for our economy and better for our planet (Bottledwaterblues). Bottled water has drawbacks. Plastic bottles hurt the environment it need more water to make a plastic bottle than actually goes inside of it. The plastic used to make the bottles can also pollute the environment. Our generation is going to face a major problem with water crisis. Something should be done to spread awareness. Ellerbe says that if there is no life without water, there is also no problem without a solution. Politics, poverty and pollution are the causes of this water crisis. The problem is not limited to developing countries (Broadwayworld). The main sources of the contemporary conception of human rights are the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations, 1048b).

Conclude on previous researches
The previous researches concluded that there are many environmental problems using the plastic water bottles. Reusable eco-friendly water bottles are better than plastic water bottles. By using plastic water bottles people may get health hazards due to chemicals used in plastic. Reusable bottles do not cause health problems. Tap water is also good to health and saves a lot of money. Many studies say that home filtration is most convenient and healthier rather than tap or bottled water.
Bottled water is held only to the standards of the Food and Drug Administration, where as tap water is held to the higher standards of the Environmental Protection Agency (Byng 2008).   

Address the Bigger issue
Use filtered tap water instead of buying spring water. Replace plastic water bottles with portable metal water bottles. Stainless steel bottles made of Klean Kanten are easy to maintain and clean. Recycle the old plastic Nalgene bottles. Wash water bottles regularly and thoroughly. Plastics pollute the environment with toxic materials. PET bottles use more than 17 million barrels of oil and produce over 2.5 tons of carbon dioxide per year. Carbon dioxide affects the ozone layer. Arsenic and e. coli was found in plastic water bottles (Waterfilters-camping-water-purifier). To do right by both health and planet, purchase a BPA-free reusable water bottle made of the most eco-friendly material you can find.   Most water is bottled in disposable plastic bottles made from polyethylene terephthalate (PET).One way to enjoy the health benefits of good hydration without harming the environment or putting your health at risk is to switch to reusable water bottles .There is a growing selection of safe, stylish, and eco-friendly reusable water bottles on the market today.

Cal State San Marcos students are making enough efforts to give new ideas of recycling and won consecutively national recycling contest for five years.

Facts of the eco-friendly water bottles vs. plastic water bottles
Tons of trash is created by bottled water. Every year, more than 26 billion bottles are thrown away and 16.5 billion gallons of water are wasted to provide Americans with convenient access to water. The plastic from these bottles does not biodegrade. Plastic bottles end up in landfills. Bottled water is not safer than tap water. 25 bottled water is really just tap water in a bottle. Eco-friendly water bottles are better to use rather than plastic water bottles. We can clean these bottles easily. Eco-friendly water bottles look smart.
Most of the students in the colleges including Cal State San Marcos students use plastic water bottles because they feel it is more accessible and convenient. There are many disadvantages in using the plastic water bottles. These plastic water bottles have been banned in many schools and colleges. The school or college must educate the students on the effect of plastic water bottle. It has a drastic effect on the environment and health. All the students before buying the plastic water bottle should think how the plastic in that bottle is going to affect negatively on the health. Bisphenol A is the chemical found in the plastic water bottles. It can leak from the water bottle when the bottle gets a crack or when the bottle is warm. Various studies have been conducted to find out the health effects of ingesting BPA. Scientists found out that BPA is associated with angina, type II diabetes, coronary heart diseases and heart attacks in adults with increased levels of chemical. If plastic bottle has 7 on the bottom, it means that the bottle is made up of polycarbonate and it leaks BPA. Rather than buying disposable water bottle, using a reusable water bottle is an environmentally friendly option which is safe and better for the health. Another alternative to plastic bottle can be SIGG Aluminum bottle. These bottles are made in Switzerland and it has been tested and proved safe and it did not show any presence of BPA. The smart choices for the environment is to buy a non-toxic reusable bottle and fill it up by using a home filter or tap. It is cheaper in the long run than buying plastic water bottle. If the students become aware of the consequences of the plastic water bottle, then it is sure that they change their mind and switch to reusable water bottles. This step will become prominent to save the environment and health of the students and also the general public. Compared to the affordable price of the tap water, bottled water costs a bundle  sometimes up to 10,000 times more than tap water. Most people believe that bottled water is healthier than tap water, but it is not true. Tap water is rigorously tested by local, state, and federal environmental agencies. Freezing water in plastic bottle poses a health problem. When freezing water, dioxin is released into water.   

Reusable water bottles are better and safe to health. By using reusable water bottles we can save money and environment. Plastic water bottle poses many health problems and they are end up in landfills. It takes more gallons of oil to manufacture plastic water bottles. Cal State San Marcos students use plastic water bottles because they feel it is more accessible and convenient. There are many disadvantages in using the plastic water bottles. These plastic water bottles have been banned in many schools and colleges.

Research from above study
Studies have shown that water and other beverages in plastic containers may not be safe. Chemicals in the plastic can leak out into the water. These chemicals may cause a variety of health problems such as cancer, heart diseases, and interface with the bodys hormonal system. The manufacture of plastic bottles uses large amount of energy and generate toxic pollutants. Almost all plastic water bottles end up in landfills. Use eco-friendly water bottles and these are good for health and save money. Eco-friendly water bottles are getting a lot of attention. Tap water is better than bottled water. By using tap water instead of bottle water we can save money and environment. Use reusable bottles to fill tap water.   

Solution to the problem
It is better to use the eco-friendly water bottles. It may save the environment and health. Eco-friendly water bottles are easy to use. By using plastic water bottles there are many heath problems. They are a part to destroy the environment. When there is need to carry the water, it is better to use metal sports bottle or which is made of BPA-free plastic. Cloth or bamboo is eco-friendlier materials that can be used to make eco-friendly water curtains. Hemp curtains also no need of liner and is naturally mildew resistant (Bubnoff and Bloch 2008). As children grow up and become teenagers, they begin to develop a need to have private thoughts and own approach towards different kinds of usage. But motivating them in using eco-friendly water bottle can give desired results in long run.

Future studies recommended
Bottled water may seem cheap for the consumer, but its environmental cost is much higher. Plastic bottles not only pollute the environment after being thrown away, but they are also energy intensive to produce. Purchasing a reusable water bottle rather than buying disposable water bottles is an environmentally friendly option and could be better for your health.


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