Stem Cell Research Proposal

Amidst positive developments regarding research on stem cells therapeutic capability, it has been observed especially in the works of Shoutian Zhu, Heiko Wurdak, Jian Wang, Costas A. Lyssiotis, Eric C. Peters, Charles Y. Cho,  Xu Wu, entitled A Small Molecule Primes Differentiation that embryonic stem cells are competent for generation of all fetal and adult cell types (p. 416). However they implied this is not an automatic process as there is a method needed to direct the differentiation of ESCs to produce homogenous populations of particular cell type.  Researchers have identified a small molecule known as stauprimide to increase the efficiency of directed ESC. According to Zhu, Wurdak, Wang, Lyssiotis, Peters, Cho, and Wu, in their study of embryonic development, they found out that by using, endodermal cells derived from ESCs combined with other markers, ESCs are capable of generating adult cells that are adaptable to all cell types capable for therapeutic treatment of  end stage liver failure.

Specific aims   
Stem cell research is currently the most controversial among the many scientific break through not only because of its potential benefit but also in view of its potential for other scientific purposes other than for the rehabilitation of the defective or worn out cells of the human physical body. The aim of this research is to find out whether stem cells are an effective therapy for the repair of liver tissue causing disease. Various studies seemed to tell us that stem cells transplantation is a potential therapy to end stage and degenerative diseases, in view of its capacity to reproduce in the human body.  Further, this study aims to provide understanding of the scientific process by which the therapy is done. It means that the paper will engage in critical analysis of experiments and if viable, clinical observation in order to clearly provide a basis for such understanding.

Lysy, Campard, Smets, Najimi, and Sokal (2008) cited that despite the effectiveness of the current treatment for end-stage liver failure which is the orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), it remains problematic in view of the organ shortage which is the major limiting factor (p. 864). Even the emerging Liver cells transplantation (LCT) which is gaining heartening success is affected by the limited cell and tissue availability. Today, according to Lysy, Campard, Smets, Najimi, and Sokal, interests in stem cell research is increasing in view of theoretical advantages that scientists and researchers dealing with this subject have observed.  However, Zhu, Wurdak, Wang, Lyssiotis, Peters, Cho, Wu and Schultz categorically stated that applications of ESC-derived cell types are largely hindered by the lack of highly efficient methods for lineage specific differentiation (p. 416). Thus according to them, research on finding appropriate marker for ESCs using combinations of various cells type continues. Currently, they pointed out that with the identification of a small molecule named stauprimide they reported increases in the efficiency of the directed differentiation of mouse and human ESC in synergy with defined with defined extra cellular signaling cues. With this very recent development, this research proposal hopes to provide information and understanding on the stem cell research particularly in the use of stem cell for the repair of liver tissue.

Given the statements of the problem mentioned in this paper, the following hypotheses are drawn
The stem cell transplant is at the moment not a viable option for therapeutic treatment. 
At the moment it is not safe to be injected in the human body in view of the insufficient clear findings regarding its impact on the internal system of the human body.
There are yet no concrete findings based on actual treatment of diseases in the human body which categorize stem cell therapy as a futuristic medicine.

Preliminary studies  
 In the study presented by Zhu, Wurdak, Wang, Lyssiotis, Peters, Cho, Wu and Schultz they noted that while ESCs are seen as a source of  cells for disease, and are capable of providing access to cells for treatment of degenerative disease, they pointed out this process is problematic because it lack highly efficient methods for lineage specific differentiation. To address this issue, they introduce an experiment using a small molecule termed as stauprimide which is capable to increase the efficiency of directed ESC as well as other protein family to determine the potential of ESCs for therapeutic treatment. Their findings revealed that despite the promise of ESCs a number of factors limit their utility (p. 423). This include heterogeneity of ESC-derived lineages, inefficient differentiation resulting from contaminant tumorigenic ESCs, and the use of animal-derived product (p. 423). The experiment further revealed that stauprimide both increases the effiency of differentiation and decreases the content in differentiated product which all point to the conclusion that in the meantime, the use of stem cell for the treatment of liver tissue is yet unreliable as according Zhu, Wurdak, Wang, Lyssiotis, Peters, Cho, Wu and Schultz NME2 which is part of the protein family is un regulated in certain cancers and that they seen to play an important role in the proliferation of cancer cells (p. 423).
This conclusion was echoed by the findings of experiment cited Chanda, Isayeva, Kumar, Hensel, Sawant, Ramaswamy, Siegel, Beatty, and Ponnashagan (2009) regarding the potential effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) which is one of the stem cells that could be use for therapy of end-stage disease. According to their experiment, PC3 cells were injected in the tibia and allowed to grow for two weeks. 5 x 10,00000 mesenchymal stem cell were also injected in the same location. Findings after four weeks of experiment revealed that there was no significant different between treated and untreated animals injected with the same cells (p. 7177). Thus, it appears that preliminary studies shows stem cell research for therapeutic treatment of liver tissue repair is yet unreliable.

Research design and methods
This design for this research will primarily be concern on the evaluation of research experiments particularly on the potential of stem cell for therapeutic treatment. The researcher will also consult with qualified or informed individuals on the subject regarding actual clinical practice of this type of therapeutic treatment if at all this is possible to get first hand information on actual effect of stem cell trans plant for therapeutic treatment. If the latter is viable, then part of the method of collecting data for this research is to interview individuals who may have direct knowledge of the subject.  The design therefore of this research is essay type although it may also feature some narratives particularly on the description of the procedures of such experiments. So basically, this paper will be a combination of an essay and narrative in order for the researcher to provide a more informative discussion of the proposal.
Part of the design of this paper is the limitation of source materials. This paper will only utilize sources that are directly related to the topic especially those that are experiment based materials. Therefore, the paper will not discussed any source that only provides information based historical accounts or any materials that are not directly concern about the topic.
As per the current status of stem cells research, there has been no clear findings yet on the potential of stem cells for therapy of end-stage disease such as the repair of liver tissue or any other degenerative diseases including cancer and kidney problems. Lysy, Campard, Smets, Najimi, and Sokal admit that though stem cells promises potential, however, it limited by cell viability, modest engraftment and limited tissue availability (p. 864).

The findings of experiment conducted by Zhu, Wurdak, Wang, Lyssiotis, Peters, Cho, Wu and Schultz implies that stem cells research is yet to come up with a more concrete findings on the potential of stem cells for the treatment of end-stage liver failure and other degenerative diseases. It appears that despite the viability of stem cells, the problem of appropriate cell combinations such ESCs with protein based cells proved to be problematic, while those cells that are adaptable to other type of cell combination such as the endodermic and stauprimide also proved ineffective in view of the findings of experiment as stated by Zhu, Wurdak, Wang, Lyssiotis, Peters, Cho, Wu and Schultz.
Generally therefore, it appears that stem cells at the moment is not a viable therapeutic options for such diseases as end-stage liver failure, kidney. Cancers and degenerative diseases.
Literatures cited
One of the most important literature this paper will utilize is the Stem Cells for Liver Tissue Repair Current knowledge and Perspectives pp. 864 - 871 written by Etienne M. Sokal. This material was published by the World Journal of Gastroenterology in 2008 this literature provides extensive information on the stem cells therapy especially in view of the use of stem cells therapy for treatment of end liver failure. This paper will also use the literatures earlier cited in the paper such as the works of Diptiman Chanda, Tatyana Isayeva, Sanjay Kumar, Jonathan A. Hensel, Anandi Sawant, Girish Ramaswamy, Gene P. Siegal, Matthew S. Beatty, and Selvarangan Ponnazhagan (2008) in their article entitled Therapeutic Potential of Adult Bone MarrowDerived MesenchymalStem Cells in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis Published in 2008 by the American Association for Cancer Research, pp. 7175-7184 as well as the works of Vanessa Fritz, Daniele Noel, Celine Bouquet, Paule, Opolon, Romain Voide, Florence Apparilly, Pascale Louis, Florence Apparailly, Carine Bouffi, Hicham Drissi and Chao Xie titled Antitumoral Activity and Osteogenic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Expressing the Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Antagonist Amino-Terminal Fragment in a Murine Model of Osteolytic Tumor published by AlphaMed Press 2008 1066-50992008, pp. 2981-2990.
Given all information available, stem cells research at the moment is not a viable therapeutic option for liver tissue repair and for other degenerative diseases as scientist dealing with this subject is yet to come up with concrete findings. Current experiments so far revealed that stem cells researchers are still facing cloudy horizon with regards to the potential of stem cells for therapeutic treatment of diseases.  Thus, despite of  Lysy, Campard,  Smets, Najimi, and Sokal assertion that literature concerning the use of stem cells for clinical therapy is unceasingly growing in many fields (pp. 870-871), stem cells research are yet to come up with a concrete findings of the potential of stem cells especially in view of problems regarding combination with other cells particularly with protein based cells. The stauprimide which was initially thought to be the solution to the problem proved to be in effective because while it serves its purpose on the other, it was problematic especially in the content of differentiated product which it supposedly sought to increase. Thus, this paper proposes that stem cells at present are not a viable option for the treatment offend-stage liver failure and other degenerative diseases.


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